common reed identification

Common reed is a tall, warm-season, perennial grass. australis (non-native) or Phragmites australis subsp. ex Steud, or common reed, is thought to be one of the most widespread plants on Earth and is found in marsh systems world-wide. An integrated approach using application of glyphosate followed by cutting or burning can be effective. nutrition, medicinal values, recipes, history, harvesting tips, etc.) Pennsylvania Sea Grant. Google. The mighty phragmite, European reedgrass, or common reed, this is a species of the phragmites that has a plethora of valuable uses for wildlife and for us. australis) is an aggressive perennial grass that is closely related to the native subspecies, Phragmites australis spp. University of Georgia. Phragmites australis More Info & Photos of Common Reed Non-Herbicide Management Options 1. The stems are rigid, hollow and round and are about 1 inch in diameter and are usually 6-13 feet tall. This species of grass is introduced to North America and extremely invasive, greatly expanding its range since the early 20th century. americanus - native Family: Poaceae (Grass family) Native vs. Non-native. Common Reed. Due to this wide range of habitat tolerances it is common in tidal wetlands, freshwater swamps and marshlands throughout the Derwent estuary. Its leaves are alternate, up to 70 cm long and 3.5 cm wide, and smooth in appearance. Leaves. One strain is non-native, and was accidentally introduced from Europe in the late 18th or earl… JSON; GBIF; Encyclopaedia of Life; Biodiversity Heritage Library; PESI [counting] records This map contains both point- and grid-based occurrences at different resolutions. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Common Reed. common reed Phragmites communis This plant and synonym italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Pondweed Identification. Common chickweed is often forms a dense mats and rarely grows higher than 2 inches. Ohio State University. Phragmites australis, known as common reed, is a broadly distributed wetland grass growing nearly 20 ft (6 m) tall. Invades moist habitats including lakeshores, river banks and roadways. It’s also been around a long time, say the experts. Common reed is another very large grass plant, native to Florida. Common Bulang, Badhara Bush, Asiatic Beechberry, Oval-leafed Gmelina Glory Lily, Gloriosa, Gloriosa Lily, Flame Lily, Rhodesian Flame Lily, Climbing Lily Honey Locust, McConnel’s Curse, Bean Tree, Sweet Locust, Three-thorned Acacia ex Steud, or common reed, is thought to be one of the most widespread plants on Earth and is found in marsh systems world-wide. Identification Common reed is a tall perennial grass with creeping rhizomes that may make a dense vegetative mat. Leaves occur in opposing pairs and are connected to the stem with a ridge of numerous broad irregular bristles. nutrition, medicinal values, recipes, history, harvesting tips, etc.) Common reed can be found in marshes, along rivers, at stream sides and canal banks. Cooperative Extension. The cosmopolitan common reed has the generally accepted botanical name Phragmites australis. The leaf blades are flat, hairless, wide, and come off the stem at a 45 degree angle. OUR WORKBOATS. See also: Michigan Invasive Species - Phragmites. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. GRIN-Global. Common reed, Phragmites australis, is in the Poaceae or grass family. Species Overview. Fish populations that reproduce in wetlands and marshes inundated with phragmites suffer higher egg and juvenile mortality. University of Alaska - Anchorage. The Common Reed (Phragmites australis) is a native perennial species that can grow up to four metres high. Invasive European strains probably introduced during the 1800s (. Leaf blades are 1 to 5 cm wide, 20 to 60 cm long, flat, and glaborous. For comprehensive information (e.g. Introduced phragmites typically forms very dense stands of both live stems and standing dead stems from the previous year’s growth. Always remove seed heads from weeds and take care when digging them out to remove all of the roots. common reed, also known as phragmites, is a Class B Noxious Weed. It is an erect perennial grass 6-15 ft. (2-5 m) tall that remains standing through all seasons and is fairly easily recognized by its plume-like inflorescences. Trin. americanus. berlandieri may or may not be native to the U.S. and is found in California, along the Gulf Coast, and in the Southeast. Phragmites / Common Reed. Invasive Species - (Phragmites australis) Restricted in Michigan Invasive phragmites (also known as common reed) is a warm-season perennial grass with a rigid hollow stem and leaves that are flat, smooth, and green to grayish-green. (15-60 cm) long, 0.4-2.4 in. It can be dried, ground coarsely and used as a porridge. Flower spikes are large and compact on stems high above the leaves in June and July. Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(4):2445-2449. Indigenous Australians used the leaves for twisting into rope, the stems as spear shafts and the roots as food. A sugary gum that exudes from the stem can be rolled into balls and eaten as a sweet. Pros and Cons of Common Reed Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Stem texture is rough and dull. In a few cases, the key will not lead to a result, although the shoots are obviously dead. University of Minnesota. Common reed grass has been used throughout history for thatched roofs, cattle feed and numerous other creative uses. Common reed, Phragmites australis, is in the Poaceae or grass family. It has large, feathery, flower spikes that appear dark purple, but slowly fade to brown as the spikelets (containing the flowers) grow bristles. ex Steud. Found in stationary or slow-moving water bodies, margins of creeks, streams, channels and drains, swamps, areas with high water levels or which are seasonally inundated. This species of Richardia is quite common in Australia it has a thick white central tap root usually contorted from the crown of the plant. Invasive Species Definition. Texas Invasive Species Institute. Prohibited (red) and restricted (orange) counties. It can spread through root fragmentation, long runners above ground and sometimes wind-blown seeds or cut stem fragments. AgriLife Extension Service. To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). Both sub-species can be found in Nebraska. Alberta Invasive Species Council (Canada). The postemergence grass herbicides used in nursery crops and turf, clethodim, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, and sethoxydim, did not control common reed. Native vs. Non-native. Marine Invasions Research Lab. University of Pennsylvania. Reed canarygrass grows 3 to 6 feet tall and has sturdy hollow stems up to ½ inch wide, with reddish coloring near the top. If you tilt the stem up so that it's vertical, then the grass is about 5.5m tall (18ft). Common Reed is still regularly harvested in southern Europe and parts of Asia for thatching, matting, brooms and other uses. The common reed can grow anywhere from 1 to 6 metres (3 to 18') tall. Phragmites Adans. Common Reed. 4 Common Reed Phragmites australis Habitat: Edges of creeks and rivers, especially near coast Season: Summer Tasmanian people ate the shoots of the underground stems or rhizomes. It is in the family Poaceae (Grass family). In-depth wild edible PDFs. Panicles are oblong, purplish when young, straw-coloured at maturity. Proper identification fo this plant is difficult, so please consult and expert for proper ID. Trin. It’s one of the most common flowering plants on he planet and is found throughout North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia. Both sub-species can be found in Nebraska. EdibleWildFood.com is informational in nature. Johnston, and D.L. Invasive Plant Atlas of New England website has images, similar species, management options and additional links for the Common Reed, that are all related to New England and the northeast. Common reed is a perennial grass species that is distributed throughout the United States. Phragmites australis(Cav.) The stems can be another way to distinguish between the native and introduced varieties. Saltonstall, K. 2002. Common Reed ( Phragmites australis ) Common Reed (Phragmites Australis) grows in shallow wetlands, extremely invasive and hardy. – Common reed, giant reed, canegrass Scientific name: Phragmites australis subsp. The stems are rigid, hollow and round and are about 1 inch in diameter and are usually 6-13 feet tall. 2002. In fact it is found on all continents except Antarctica. It has a somewhat sweet liquorice-like taste. Tewksbury, L., R. Casagrande, B. Blossey, P. Hafliger, and M. Schwarzlander. a.k.a. Phragmites australis, the common reed, is an aggressive, vigorous species which, in suitable habitats, will out-compete virtually all other species and form a totally dominant stand. a.k.a. Important Information: Native Phragmites can contain little black spots, which are from a fungus that only affects the native species, so it is a good identifier. Provides state, county, point and GIS data. Common reed remains actively growing in fall when other species are dormant; herbicide application in fall will minimize effects on native species. Giant reed (Arundo donax) may be easily confused with common reed (Phragmites australis) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum). (Cav.) USDA. north-east United States (zones 4-7), but do grow elsewhere. These species can be distinguished by the following differences: giant reed (Arundo donax ) is a very tall grass (2-7 m tall) with relatively broad leaves (10-80 mm wide). Flowers typically occur in August and September and form bushy panicles that are usually purple or golden. The native phragmite seed head is smaller and sparser compared to that of the common reed. About 130 other synonyms have been proposed, and some have been widely used. The leaves are rolled in the shoot, no auricles are present, and the ligule is a fringe of hairs. Forms dense stands, including both live stems and standing dead stems from previous years. An important component of wetland ecosystems, it gives cover to animals and helps to prevent wave or stream erosion. Distinguishing Features. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. The leaves are rolled in the shoot, no auricles are present, and the ligule is a fringe of hairs. Common reed grass has been used throughout history for thatched roofs, cattle feed and numerous other creative uses. [citation needed] Examples include Phragmites communis Trin., Arundo phragmites L., and Phragmites vulgaris (Lam.) Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center. This species is Introduced in the United States. ex Steud. Phragmites australis . Native to temperate and tropical regions of the world including Australia, Middle East and Europe. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. It spreads by rhi… Common reed is a vigorous growing plant that forms dense monotypic stands that consume available growing space and push out other plants including the native subspecies. Native Americans had some 75 uses for Common Reed, including arrow shafts, pipes, whistles and matting. The Pennsylvania Flora Project of Morris Arboretum. Common reed alters hydrology and wildlife habitat, increases fire potential and shades native species. For comprehensive information (e.g. Tulbure, M.G., C.A. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. The plant spreads horizontally by sending out rhizome … Analyse data Interactive map … Columbia University. These invertebrates in turn are used as food by fish and other wildlife species (e.g. The crown is made up of green prostate stems, many branched with very small white hairs. the native common reed pose little or no threat to other native species. australis - non-native Phragmites australis subsp. Physical Characteristics Leaves: Blades flat; 0.39-1.5 inches wide; Flowers: Loose, branching cluster; Spikelets few-flowered; Stem: Hollow stem; 3-9 feet tall; 0.2-0.59 inches thick; Where Does it Grow? Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences. Although the species … Great Lakes Commission. americanus - native Family: Poaceae (Grass family) Native vs. Non-native. Common Reed can displace rare species in good quality dune habitat. please check out our, Wild food can help treat various medical conditions. Native phragmites typically occurs in low density stands often co-mingled with other native plants but it can occur in very dense stands. Flooding can kill common reed but may also injure native species. States Counties Points List Species Info. Thus, additional species possibly present and causing less obvious damage can be identified. Common reed (Phragmites australis), the original species named reed; Giant reed (Arundo donax), used for making reeds for musical instruments; Burma reed (Neyraudia reynaudiana) Reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) Reed sweet-grass (Glyceria maxima) Small-reed (Calamagrostis species) In the sedge family, Cyperaceae. What is Common Reed? This damage can often be assigned to late frost in spring or mechanical damage caused by vertebrates. also known as common reed, is a perennial, aggressive wetland grass that outcompetes native plants and displaces native animals. 2007. It is detrimental to native plants and wildlife, quite difficult to eradicate, and tends to emerge earlier and be less susceptible to insect herbivory than the native strains. Also known as Phragmites, is an invasive plant that grows and spreads rapidly. The King County Noxious Weed Control Board requires property owners to control common reed on private and public lands throughout the county (control, as defined by state law, means to prevent all seed It is able to … Overview; Gallery; Names; Classification; Records; Literature; Sequences; Data Partners + Online Resources. Its scientific name is Phragmites australis subsp. Because of its height and its distinctive, fluffy seedheads, Phragmites is easy to spot, even by traveling motorists. Both sub-species can be found in Nebraska. (illegitimate name). Broad, pointed leaves arise from thick, vertical stalks. While we strive to be 100% accurate, it is solely up to the reader to ensure proper plant identification. Trin. 2. The flavour and texture are best when the root is young and in the growth cycle. It is an erect perennial grass 6-15 ft. (2-5 m) tall that remains standing through all seasons and is fairly … We are not health professionals, medical doctors, nor are we nutritionists. It also alters wetland hydrology, increases the potential for fire and reduces and degrades wetland wildlife habitat due in part to its very dense growth habit. Common reed is an invasive species that has overtaken wetland habitats in the eastern United States and can spread into roadsides, turf, and ornamental sites. While the identification was difficult it turned out to be a good find because the Common Reed, which ever variety, has many edible uses. Common Reed: An Invasive Wetland Plant - This 4-page PDF from the Massachusetts Dept. It forms large, dense colonies that can overtake mist areas like ditches and shorelines and out-compete native plant species. They found evidence of it in 40,000 year old sloth dung… (Now there’s an occupation for cocktail party chitchat…) Besides sloths humans have eaten it for a long time as well. There are at least three lineages, or strains, of common reed in the U.S. At least one is native to the U.S. including the one that was most common in New York, P. australis subsp. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. americanus. The invasive common reed (Phragmites australis subspecies australis) is a cane-like perennial grass that has rhizomes, forms large stands of clones, and grows from 12 to 16 feet tall. In King County, most infestations are still small and can be eradicated. Common reed is a large rhizomatous/stoloniferous cool season grass obtaining heights of up to 4 m (13 ft) with stems averaging 0.5 to 1.5 cm (0.2 to 0.6 in) in diameter. Shoots can be used like bamboo shoots. How to identify Common reed has tall, hollow, golden stems. Common names: common reed grass, ditch reed, giant reed; Scientific names: Arundo phragmites; A. australis; P. communis; Ecological threat. – common reed The inflorescence is in a panicle that bears juvenile spikelets at emergence. Species details Kingdom Plantae (plants) Class Equisetopsida (land plants) Family Poaceae (grass) Scientific name Phragmites australis (Cav.) The Common Reed is an invasive species of large perennial grasses in the Phragmites genus. of Conservation & Recreation covers habitat, distribution, reproduction and management of Common Reed… Another common reed strain, P. australis var. Auger. The invasive common reed (Phragmites australis subspecies australis) is a cane-like perennial grass that has rhizomes, forms large stands of clones, and grows from 12 to 16 feet tall. Applcc; Conservation Design; Conservation Planning Atlas ; Conservation Planning and GIS Resources; Eastern Brook Trout Joint Venture; Ecosystem Benefits and Risks; Energy; Nature and Society; Imperiled Aquatic Species for the UTRB; North Atlantic LCC; … The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Once non-native common reed invades a wetland, it … The flowers are small with five white petals. The species is tolerant of fresh or slightly brackish water. It also alters wetland hydrology, increases the potential for fire and reduces and degrades wetland wildlife habitat due in part to its very dense growth habit. (16 pages) Occurrence of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) on Lake Huron shorelines: Field Report and Recommendations. The common reed typically forms denser stands than the native. The stems are erect, rigid, smooth, hollow and can grow up to six meters in height. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014]. It loves fresh water 0.2–1 metre deep and also tolerates brackish waters of estuaries where rivers meet the sea. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation. Primary panicle branches divided; bearing spikelets almost to the base. Phragmites australis is the dominant species in reedbeds, a UK BAP habitat, and amongst the most important habitat for birds in the UK such as the bittern, the reed bunting and the marsh harrier (Anon, 1995; Hawke & José, 1996). other hand, the non-native common reed is a fast spreading species that is invading wetlands in many parts of the state, espe-cially along the Platte River. The flat leaves taper into a point, and are attached to the stem by smooth sheaths, which are loose so that the leaves all point in one direction in the wind. Flowers occur between July and October and are arranged in tawny spikelets with tufts of silky hair. Phragmites / Common Reed. Trin. Common Name Common Reed Description Common reed is a perennial grass that grows to 4 m tall in both fresh and brackish water. Thurston County Noxious Weed Control (Washington). Once non-native common reed invades a wetland, it outcompetes most of the native plants, changing wetland hydrology, altering wildlife habitat, and increasing fire danger. Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. National Invasive Species Information Center, Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) - Common Reed, YouTube - Spotlight on Invasive Species: Phragmites, Fact Sheet: Phragmites (Apr 2016) (PDF | 1.2 MB), Invasive Plants of Ohio: Fact Sheet 5 - Common Reed Grass (Phragmites) (PDF | 325 KB), Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC): Species Biography - Common Reed (Feb 17, 2011) (PDF | 262 KB), Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Common Reed, New York Invasive Species Information - Common Reed, Plantwise Technical Factsheet - Common Reed (, National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS): Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database -, Noxious Weed Fact Sheet: Common Reed (Feb 2017) (PDF | 397 KB), A Guide to the Control and Management of Invasive Phragmites (2014) (PDF | 5.86 MB), Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania: Common Reed (PDF | 671 KB), Aquatic Invasive Species in the Chesapeake Bay - Phragmites (Sep 2013) (PDF | 134 KB), Invasive Plant Fact Sheet - Common Reed (Nov 2011) (PDF | 132 KB), Introduced Species Summary Project - Common Reed, Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin: Common Reed, Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide - Common Reed. The common reed is harvested primarily for use in thatching in Britain but has numerous uses worldwide (Haslam, 1972). Dried stems were made into a marshmallow-like confection by North American First Nations. Leaves are 6-23.6 in. MOST COMMON LAWN … Phragmites / Common Reed. Young shoots can be consumed raw, pickled, or cooked. australis - non-native Phragmites australis subsp. COMMON REED Where the road between Río Lagartos and Las Coloradas dips into salt marshes along the estuary, some very tall grasses lean over the roadside, as shown below: The seat on the bicycle is about one meter high, which makes the flowering head atop the tallest grass about five meters up. The introduced species, Phragmites australis subspecies Australis is the species that grows rapidly. Foliage. A powder extracted from the dried stems can be moistened and roasted like marshmallow. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. The native variety is usually found in fens, sedge meadows, river banks and shores. Navigate Target Species. They have an extensive rhizome network and roots typically grow to a depth of 1 metre (3'). Black Duck; Bog Turtle; Eastern Hellbender; Golden-Winged Warbler; Northern Bobwhite Quail; Companion Sites. Submerged portions provide habitats for many micro and macro invertebrates. Physical control is difficult because it can re-establish from remaining seeds or rhizomes. americanus. There are both native and non-native strains of this plant in Washington. Common Reed species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native. It is occasionally found growing in rivers, lake margins, fresh or brackish marshes, and wet, disturbed sites from the central and southern peninsula to the panhandle of … See also: Noxious Weed Fact Sheets for more species. Pennsylvania State University. Flowers. Habitat. Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Rapid invasion of a Great Lakes coastal wetland by non-native. Texas State University System. – reed Species: Phragmites australis (Cav.) amphibians, reptiles, ducks, etc). The leaf margins are rough and the sheaths are overlapping. Identification, health, Details; Distribution; Public Sightings; Conservation Status; Common Reed. People from the lower Murray River collected mussels on inland lakes using large, rectangular rafts made from the long stems layered and bound. Common reed is a vigorous growing plant that forms dense monotypic stands that consume available growing space and push out other plants including the native subspecies. Due to its aggressive tendencies and impact to waterways, the non-native strain or haplotype is a Phragmites found in both eastern and western Washington and some infestations are many acres in size. It provides poor quality habitat for insects, birds and amphibians. – Common reed, giant reed, canegrass Scientific name: Phragmites australis subsp. Genetic studies have confirmed that there IS a native variety of Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada). Frequent mowing is sometimes effective for the control of Common Reed. Phragmites australis. common reed Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel . Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative. Maps can be downloaded and shared. Found in wet areas, this species is known to grow along marshes, streams, rivers, lakes and roadsides. The Common Reed forms large beds; it has round, hollow stems, which typically grow to 2 metres in height, but may reach 4 metres. The leafy stems do not branch and shoots and leaves are stiff and sharp because of the high concentration of cellulose and silica content. Identification: European common reed (Phragmites australis spp. As mentioned the Common Reed is Phragmites australis (frag-MY-tees oss-STRAY-less) which means “screen” and “south” or southern screen. Crép. Height. Reed, in botany, any of several species of large aquatic grasses, especially the four species constituting the genus Phragmites of the grass family (Poaceae). University of Maine. This can lead to the alteration of dune ecosystems, which could ultimately lead to beach and dune degradation. The plant ranges in height from 6-13 feet. It is common in disturbed areas and can tolerate brackish waters, dry conditions and alkaline to acidic conditions. Description: Culms 1-3 m high; leaves narrowly lanceolate, long-tapering, c. 20-55 x 1.5-4.5 cm, glabrous. It is valuable to wildlife because many species of birds eat the seeds and use the plant’s thick colonies for shelter. The leaves are stiff, lanceolate and 20-40 cm long and 1-4 cm wide. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Common reed has a worldwide distribution. Appearance . Some wild plants are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects. Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. In Canada and the U.S. the Phragmites australis subspecies Americanus species is native. Introduced phragmites is typically found in ditches, disturbed sites, and can tolerate saline habitats. The flowers grow as dense branched clusters on the end of each stem that are open and feathery at maturity. Home > Field Guide App > Plants > Species list > Common Reed. Roots contain up to 5% sugar and according to Edible Oz, can be eaten raw or cooked like potatoes. COMMON REED FACTS: Map is from The Atlas of Living Australia web site, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License. Evidence from fossilized dung of the ground sloth, phragmites was present in North America as long as 40,000 years ago and fossil phragmites seeds found in peat samples date back 3,500 years. National Genetic Resources Program. The leaves are l… ARS. YouTube; Southeast Michigan Council of Governments. The trick to preventing weeds from taking hold is to keep your lawn in good condition. please check out our Common Reed PDF magazine. Another common reed strain, P. australis var. The common reed is a robust perennial plant growing to 4 metres high. Common chickweed will grow in a wide range of soils but does particularly well in neutral pH soils with high nitrogen and poorly in low pH or acid soils. The common reed stems have more pronounced vertical ridges than the native variety. On the other hand, the non-native common reed is a fast spreading species that is invading wetlands in many parts of the state, espe-cially along the Platte River. Common Reed. Washington Invasive Species Council. Today, however, it mostly appears as a simple invasive species that takes over fields, open grasslands and, in some places, even yards. In the Great Lakes basin, it is frequently found on shorelines. ex Steud. Common Reed (Phragmites) Invasive Species Alert - Printable PDF A Guide to the Control and Management of Invasive Phragmites – Third Edition This document provides in-depth information about Phragmites in the State of Michigan including identification, distribution, … The leaf sheath is open. Common reed replaces native grasses, sedges, and herbaceous plants. Dithiopyr, MSMA, and quinclorac also did not control this weed. They measure 15 to 50 cm long and 6 to 20 cm wide. How to Control Chickweed This aggressive grass poses many challenges to management and creates significant problems for restoration projects. Habitat. These stems grow from a system of stout, creeping rhizomes. Trin. Phragmites is also known as common reed, giant reed, or canegrass. Common Reed Fact Sheet Phragmites, US Fish and Wildlife. The ligule is a ring of hairs averaging 1 to 2 mm (0.4 to 0.8 in) in length. This tall wetland grass is also known as common reed. nutrition, recipes, history, uses & more! Click. The leaf has… Read More. Phragmites australis is a tall, perennial grass that can grow to heights of 15 ft. (4.6 m) or more. All information, photographs and web content contained in this website is Copyright © EdibleWildFood.com 2020.

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