Among other convictions, four men were executed as a result. War crimes (Deaths of POWs from starvation and exposure). Iraq also used chemical weapons against their own Kurdish population causing casualties estimated between several hundred up to 5,000 deaths. The AVNOJ Presidium issued a decree that ordered the government confiscation of all property of Nazi Germany and its citizens in Yugoslavia, persons of ethnic German nationality (regardless of citizenship), and collaborators. Serb Territorial Defense and paramilitary units. " Mario Roatta, commander of the Italian Second Army, objected to these "massive slaughters" of noncombatant civilians and threatened to halt Italian aid to the Chetniks if they did not end..  After the Algerian independence movement formed a National Liberation Front (FLN) in 1954, the French Minister of the Interior joined the Minister of National Defense in 1955 in ordering that every rebel carrying a weapon, suspected of doing so, or suspected of fleeing, must be shot. War Crime (Estimated 1,000 to 3,000 killed). 18–21 November 1991; bodies buried in a mass grave, Torture of POWs and illegal detention of civilians, September 21, 1991; bodies buried in a mass grave in the village of Celija. 301; Hadley, Michael L. (1995). Many people, including leaders, Crime of torture, War crimes (Torture of POWs). Serbian paramilitaries. Official records indicate that 150 wounded men were killed.  Massacres continued in the following months in the region.  In addition, tens of thousands of protesters and activists have been imprisoned and there are reports of torture in state prisons. The Khmer Rouge killed many people due to their political affiliation, education, class origin, occupation, or ethnicity.. On 29 March 1971 the PAVN attacked Duc Duc in Quảng Nam Province systematically destroying the civilian hamlets with satchel charges and by setting fires. , Chetnik ideology revolved around the notion of a Greater Serbia within the borders of Yugoslavia, to be created out of all territories in which Serbs were found, even if the numbers were small. In 13 separate incidences John Donaldson was reported to have flown over civilian areas shooting at civilians. In Germany and many other European nations, the Nazi Party and denial of the Holocaust is outlawed. October 1991. Around the same time the Chetniks made their way to Višegrad where deaths were reportedly in the thousands. Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, officially titled Secretary General of the Northern Bureau of the Ba'ath Party from March 1987 to April 1989, and advisor to Saddam Hussein, was convicted in June 2007 of war crimes and was sentenced to death by an Iraqi court, along with accomplices Sultan Hashem Ahmed and Hussein Rashid Mohammed. Godine", "UN hails conviction of Mladic, the 'epitome of evil,' a momentous victory for justice", "UN appeals court increases Radovan Karadzic's sentence to life imprisonment", "Exhibit details Bosnia ethnic cleansing", "Prosecutor v. Dario Kordic & Mario Cerkez - Trial Chamber III - Judgment - en IT-95-14/2  ICTY 8 (26 February 2001)", Resolution 771, The First Report on the War Crimes in the Former Yugoslavia, "Bosnian Serbs' Deaths in Village Massacre Go Unpunished", "U.S.: Massacre video matches mass grave evidence", Massacre at Krusha e Madhe, Human Rights Watch Report, 4 April 1999, "Vreme 901 – Ratni zlocini: U ime zakona Leke Dukadjina", https://www.theguardian.com/law/2020/sep/02/us-sanctions-international-criminal-court-fatou-bensouda, "F.B.I. Private Clarence V. Bertucci fired a machine gun from one of the guard towers into the tents that were being used to accommodate the German prisoners of war. Nationality: German. Crimes against humanity (Estimated 1,000 to 1,500 killed). The French army killed thousands of Algerians in the first round of fighting in 1945. Estimated number of civilian victims in the years 1944-46: at least 300,000 (but not all of them victims of war crimes, many died through starvation, the cold climate and diseases), Crimes against humanity (Murder of German civilians). These laws of armed conflict are set forth in The Hague and Geneva Conventions. An abundant supply of diamonds, gold, and copper can be found in the Congo — as well as blood. " In August 2016, a public commission in Kyrgyzstan concluded that the 1916 mass crackdown was labelled as "genocide. Crimes against humanity: French sources estimated that 70,000 Muslim civilians were killed or abducted and presumed killed, by the, Crimes against humanity: Pro-French Muslims allegedly killed in Algeria by FLN in post-war reprisals: 30-150,000, Crimes against humanity: Killed in France by FLN related terrorism: 4,300.  In his updated history of the Spanish Civil War, Antony Beevor writes, "Franco's ensuing 'white terror' claimed 200,000 lives. Crimes against humanity; Crime of slaving (Slave labor), According to historian Zhifen Ju, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the, Crimes against humanity; War crimes, Use of poisons as weapons (Use of biological weapons), These bubonic plague attacks killing hundreds were a joint, Crimes against humanity; War crimes; Use of poisons as weapons (Use of chemical and biological weapons in massacre of civilians), 57 people were tried and sentenced in the People's Tribunals, 28 people were tried and sentenced in the People's Tribunals. Holocaust Encyclopedia - "Odessa massacre", (in Romanian) Northern Transilvania from release from Horthy regime to Soviet occupation (September 1944 – March 1945), James J. Weingartner "Trophies of War: U.S. Perfidiously used suicide bombers disguised as television journalists to murder, War crimes (Maltreatment leading to death of Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) prisoners of war). Considering Cats is set in 1939 London, we actually have another category of crimes introduced that year to consider, war crimes. Prisoners, who were already suffering from lack of food, water, and medical supplies were brought in groups of approximately 40 ostensibly to receive food and were shot by North Korean soldiers. Numerous reports from human right groups during the war claimed that white phosphorus shells were being used by Israel, often in or near populated areas. VC terror squads, in the years 1967 to 1972, assassinated at least 36,000 people and abducted almost 58,000 people. Ustasha militias and death squads also burnt villages and killed thousands of civilian Serbs in the country-side in sadistic ways with various weapons and tools. War crimes; offenses against the customary law of nations (outrages upon diplomatic plenipotentiaries and agents). Over 26,000 Boer women and children were to perish in these concentration camps. In 1958, all charges were dropped and sentences were reduced. 8 survived by hiding under bodies of the dead.  Most of the camp was at Jasenovac, about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Zagreb. This was a massacre conducted by South Korean forces on October 9 and October 10, 1966, of 280 civilians in Tịnh Sơn village, Crimes against humanity (423 to 430 civilians killed). Massacre of at least 50 Bosniaks by Bosnian Serb Army in the Rogatica Municipality on June 15, 1992. University of California Press. Kwon, Heonik. The complex also included large grounds at Donja Gradina directly across the Sava River, the Jastrebarsko children's camp to the northwest, and the Stara Gradiška camp (Jasenovac V) for women and children to the southeast. 12 members of the Kantogun were found guilty for the manufacture and use of biological weapons. Though much of Continental Europe suffered from the Nazi murders, Poland and Russia, in particular, were the states most devastated by these crimes, with many of their Jewish and a good number of their Christian citizens slaughtered by the Nazi aggressor. Crimes against humanity (135 civilians killed). 36; An account of this attrocity, known in Ethiopia as "Yekatit 12", is contained in chapter 14 of Anthony Mockler's. When considering the crimes committed by the Nazi regime, the list of perpetrators that comes to mind is invariably male: Adolf Hitler and those brought to justice at the Nuremberg Trials, such as Karl Dönitz or Rudolf Hess. Army of the Republika Srpska. Leo argues with an old friend about the creation of an international war crimes tribunal. Before, the Second Boer War took place after the Hague Convention of 1899. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Co, 2013. Seven officers convicted. Tel al-Zaatar was a UNRWA administered Palestinian Refugee camp housing approximately 50,000-60,000 refugees in northeast Beirut. Several massacres were committed during this war. Upvote. Merten, Ulrich (2012). IV), 27 May 1994.  Massacres continued in the following months in the region. The execution of 17 Bosniak civilians from Višegrad on May 26, 1992, all men. War crimes (Maltreatment leading to death of prisoners), homicides of at least two unarmed prisoners, allegations of widespread pattern of abuse. Gross and Y. Yosef Cohen, pp. , The French Union's struggle against the independence movement backed by the Soviet Union and China claimed 500,000 to 1.5 million Vietnamese lives from 1945 to 1954. 93 to 236 Romanian and Jewish civilians (depending on sources) executed as reprisal for alleged attacks from locals on the Hungarian troops. Two wounded Australians managed to escape the massacre and provide eyewitness accounts of the Japanese treatment of wounded prisoners of war, as did locals who witnessed the massacre. Pavelić died on 28 December 1959 at the Hospital Alemán in Madrid, where the Roman Catholic church had helped him to gain asylum, at the age of 70 from gunshot wounds sustained in an earlier assassination attempt by Montenegrin Blagoje Jovović. 5 March 2015. As well as the devastating effect on families concerned, these crimes have a lasting, destabilizing impact on the safety and security of communities, nations and regions for decades after they occur. , Actions against the Croats were of a smaller scale but comparable in action. Crimes against peace (Waging a war of aggression). 1944–1945 killings of ethnic Hungarians in Bačka. 283, Christian Streit: Keine Kameraden: Die Wehrmacht und die Sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen, 1941–1945, Bonn: Dietz (3.
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