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"Crocodylus" pigotti, for example, was placed in the newly erected genus Brochuchus in 2013. The species is surviving from the age of the dinosaurs to the modern times. Females usually reach maturity when around 2.3m in length. They are carnivorous animals, feeding mostly on vertebrates such as fish, reptiles, birds and mammals, and sometimes on invertebrates such as molluscs and crustaceans, depending on species and age. Most species are not highly territorial, with the exception of the saltwater crocodile, which is a highly territorial and aggressive species: a mature, male saltwater crocodile will not tolerate any other males at any time of the year, but most other species are more flexible. In the UK, a row of schoolchildren walking in pairs, or two by two is known as 'crocodile'. However, this is an advantage rather than a disadvantage to the crocodile since the properties of the teeth allow it to hold onto prey with the least possibility of the prey animal escaping. [68] Named Kolya, he joined the zoo around 1913 to 1915, fully grown, after touring in an animal show, and lived until 1995. When it has caught and eaten that prey, it closes its right aortic arch and uses its left aortic arch to flush blood loaded with carbon dioxide from its muscles directly to its stomach; the resulting excess acidity in its blood supply makes it much easier for the stomach lining to secrete more stomach acid to quickly dissolve bulks of swallowed prey flesh and bone. [50][51], Crocodiles have the most acidic stomach of any vertebrate. Guinness Book of World Records. Duméril & Bibron, 1851) Range of Crocodylus moreletii. Their powerful bodies, strong jaws and immense speed and agility along with their unparalleled stealth, has lead to them being one of the world's most apex predators in their natural environments. Who is the American Crocodile? Crocodiles do not have sweat glands and release heat through their mouths. There are about 25 species found in Central America, Africa and from India to Australia. Males mature at around 3.3m. Crocodiles are one of the most well-known and fearsome animals in the world. Many large crocodilians swallow stones (called gastroliths or stomach stones), which may act as ballast to balance their bodies or assist in crushing food,[20] similar to grit ingested by birds. It is a big-headed species and has a relatively broad snout, especially when older. The ear drums are protected by mov… As their name suggests, saltwater crocodiles are able to live in coastal habitats, but they are comfortable in freshwater rivers as well. vusta / Getty Images The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is a large freshwater African reptile. Their narrow snout is triangular in shape, and the fourth tooth on both sides of the lower jaw is visible when the mouth is closed. Crocodiles are reptiles with a firm skin which acts as a form of armour. Varuna, a Vedic and Hindu god, rides a part-crocodile makara; his consort Varuni rides a crocodile. [101][102][103] Also in India, in Goa, crocodile worship is practised, including the annual Mannge Thapnee ceremony. It is the smallest of all living crocodiles. The young is usually carried to the water in the mouth. Scientific Name: Crocodylus suchus. [97] In Madagascar various peoples such as the Sakalava and Antandroy see crocodiles as ancestor spirits and under local fady often offer them food;[98][99] in the case of the latter at least a crocodile features prominently as an ancestor deity. Crocodiles also produce different distress calls and in aggressive displays to their own kind and other animals; notably other predators during interspecific predatory confrontations over carcasses and terrestrial kills. Despite their prehistoric look, crocodiles are among the more biologically complex reptiles. Crocodiles also show the most important characteristics of the group … [3] Many species are at the risk of extinction, some being classified as critically endangered. It has a dark greyish-brown colour and is found in mostly various, A large and aggressive species with a broad snout, especially in older animals. Slender-snouted crocodiles are unique members of the crocodilian family. jean-louis Zimmermann/CC-BY 2.0. Depending on the context, some species can communicate over 20 different messages through vocalizations alone. The name "Crocodile" is also used for any member of the order Crocodilia. Its external morphology is a sign of its aquatic and predatory lifestyle. Cremnosedum 'Crocodile'. Members of this order are found in the tropics – especially Africa, Asia, Australia and America. Etymology. The Dwarf Crocodile is a small species of crocodile that is natively found in the rainforests of West Africa. However, they have many similarities in these areas as well. [82][83][84] They can observe and use patterns of prey behaviour, such as when prey come to the river to drink at the same time each day. One specimen in particular, a saltwater crocodile named Lolong was the largest crocodile to ever live in captivity. [34] Salt glands are present in the tongues of crocodiles and they have a pore opening on the surface of the tongue, a trait that separates them from alligators. Crocodiles mostly eat fish, amphibians, crustaceans, molluscs, birds, reptiles, and mammals, and they occasionally cannibalize smaller crocodiles. It has been suggested, but it is not certain that the word crocodilos or crocodeilos is a compound of krokè ("pebbles"), and drilos/dreilos ("worm"), although drilos is only attested as a colloquial term for "penis". One population of American crocodiles exists in the canal system of a Florida power plant (Gaby et al., 1985; Grenard, 1991). [39], Chemoreception in crocodiles is especially interesting because they hunt in both terrestrial and aquatic surroundings. Kingdom- Animalia: Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, and motile at some stage in its life. The force of a large crocodile's bite is more than 5,000 lbf (22,000 N), which was measured in a 5.5 m (18 ft) Nile crocodile, in the field;[54] comparing to 335 lbf (1,490 N) for a Rottweiler, 800 lbf (3,600 N) for a hyena, 2,200 lbf (9,800 N) for an American alligator,[55][failed verification] and 4,095 lbf (18,220 N) for the largest confirmed great white shark. [1] Crocodiles have more webbing on the toes of the hind feet and can better tolerate saltwater due to specialized salt glands for filtering out salt, which are present, but non-functioning, in alligators. Adult males average 3 metres (9.8 feet) in length. Inside its mouth are 64 to 70 meat-tearing teeth. Like other archosaurs, crocodilians are diapsid, although their post-temporal fenestrae are reduced. Inside its mouth are 64 to 70 meat-tearing teeth. When the birds swooped in to get the sticks, the crocodiles then catch the birds. It has dark-grey to brown coloration. Finally the shark was badly bitten and fled to the open sea, and the crocodile finally ruled the estuarine area that today is the city.[109]. Crocodiles only do this in spring nesting seasons of the birds, when there is high demand for sticks to be used for building nests. scientific name of bear is Ursidae. The American crocodile is a species of crocodile that lives in the Americas. The young have a narrower V-shaped snout that becomes wider as the animal matures. The BBC TV[52] reported that a Nile crocodile that has lurked a long time underwater to catch prey builds up a large oxygen debt. Campbell, Gwyn (2012). Morelet’s crocodile, also known as the Belize crocodile, is a relatively small species found only in fresh waters of the Atlantic regions of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala. Reptile, any member of the class Reptilia, the group of air-breathing vertebrates that have internal fertilization, amniotic development, and epidermal scales covering part or all of their body. [28][29][30], Crocodiles are polyphyodonts; they are able to replace each of their 80 teeth up to 50 times in their 35- to 75-year lifespan. What a crocodile eats varies greatly with species, size and age. Submit your funny nicknames and cool gamertags and copy the best from the list. Suitable year-round crocodile habitat was lost with the development of the upper Florida Keys. At first glance crocodiles can be difficult to distinguish from alligators, but closer inspection reveals several important differences. Exceptionally large specimens can be found in all species of crocodilian. However, males of all species are aggressive towards each other during mating season, to gain access to females. The w… Most species are grouped into the genus Crocodylus. Morelet’s crocodile, also known as the Belize crocodile, is a relatively small species found only in fresh waters of the Atlantic regions of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala. [46], Crocodiles are ambush predators, waiting for fish or land animals to come close, then rushing out to attack. Dwarf Crocodile Fun Fact: Digs burrows in river banks to rest! Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii), also known as the Mexican crocodile, is a modest-sized crocodilian found only in fresh waters of the Atlantic regions of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. IUCN Status: Unknown. [98][100], Crocodiles appear in different forms in Hinduism. Crocodiles have very good night vision, and are mostly nocturnal hunters. A (further) corrupted form cocodrille is found in Old French and was borrowed into Middle English as cocodril(le). Explore more interesting topics on crocodiles or other fascinating animals by registering with BYJU’S Biology. Domain - Eukarya Kingdom- Animalia Phylum- Chordata Class- Reptilia Order- Crocodilia Family- Crcodylidae Genus- Crocodylus Species- Crocodylus acutus. On a rare occasion they can eat larger prey such as giraffe, rhino or young buffaloes and hippos.. Young crocodiles feed upon fish, frogs, insects and reptiles. Storrs. Crocodilus porosus was the scientific name proposed by Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider who described a zoological specimen in 1801. Now, a researcher has … The scientific name for saltwater crocodiles is Crocodylus porosus. [45] This might be why in alligators they are absent on the rest of the body. The function of the DPRs on the jaws is clear; to catch prey, but it is still not clear what the function is of the organs on the rest of the body. Like all reptiles, crocodiles are diapsids—i.e., they have two openings on each side of the skull. Another source alludes to a Jayabaya prophecy—a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom—as he foresaw a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as a foretelling of the Mongol invasion of Java, a major conflict between the forces of the Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of China, and those of Raden Wijaya's Majapahit in 1293. Dwarf Crocodile Location: Africa. [68] A male freshwater crocodile lived to an estimated age of 120–140 years at the Australia Zoo. "Crocodile" is a family of reptile. [23], At the time of hatching, the young start calling within the eggs. The Dwarf Crocodile is the smallest species of crocodile in the world and is also one of the most distinctive with a short, broad snout and tough scales that cover their entire black body (most crocodiles do not have such armoured scales on their underside). Alligators are subspecies of crocodiles. In the Koine Greek of Roman times, crocodilos and crocodeilos would have been pronounced identically, and either or both may be the source of the Latinizedform crocodīlus used by the ancient Romans. Nesting periods range from a few weeks up to six months. Beard growth in humans is limited to men. Size greatly varies among species, from the dwarf crocodile to the saltwater crocodile. They are from the deep forest areas of central and western Africa and are somewhat shy and secretive. The Shark argued that the river was a water-realm which meant that it was shark territory, while the crocodile argued that the river flowed deep inland, so it was therefore crocodile territory. [81] A group of hatchlings is called a pod or crèche and may be protected for months.[76]. From the mostly fish-eating species, like the slender-snouted and freshwater crocodiles, to the larger species like the Nile crocodile and the saltwater crocodile that prey on large mammals, such as buffalo, deer and wild boar, diet shows great diversity. ", "Crocodile at Russian zoo dies; on display since czars", "Johannesburg: World's oldest crocodile turns 114", "Celebran cumpleaños del cocodrilo más longevo del mundo", "Crocodiles: Their history, characteristics and behavior", "Do crocodilians (sometimes) feed their young? [57][58] Taking the measurements of several 5.2 m (17 ft) crocodiles as reference, the bite forces of 6-m individuals were estimated at 7,700 lbf (34,000 N). [43], Crocodiles can hear well; their tympanic membranes are concealed by flat flaps that may be raised or lowered by muscles. Other articles where Crocodylidae is discussed: crocodile: Annotated classification: Family Crocodylidae (true crocodiles) 3 genera and 14 species; teeth of upper and lower jaws form one interdigitating row when mouth is closed. Therefore most conspecific vocalization is made during the breeding season, with the exception being year-round territorial behaviour in some species and quarrels during feeding. The female can lay about 20-50 eggs every year. According to a 2015 study, crocodiles engage in all three main types of play behaviour recorded in animals: locomotor play, play with objects and social play. The gharial, with its narrow snout, is easier to distinguish, while morphological differences are more difficult to spot in crocodiles and alligators. "Crocodilian Biology Database, FAQ. The scientific name of freshwater crocodile is Crocodylus johnsoni, The scientific name of Nile crocodile is Crocodylus niloticus, The scientific name of American crocodile is Crocodylus acutus, The scientific name of saltwater crocodile is Crocodylus porosus, The scientific name of Philippine crocodile is Crocodylus mindorensis, The scientific name of Indian crocodile is Crocodylus palustris, Your email address will not be published. New questions in Science. Synonyms. Feeds largely on fish. They have powerful jaws, many conical teeth, and short legs. The mugger crocodile and American crocodile are also dangerous to humans. [96] The Jukun shrine in the Wukari Federation, Nigeria is dedicated to crocodiles in thanks for their aid during migration. The largest species of crocodile is the saltwater crocodile, found in eastern India, northern Australia, throughout South-east Asia, and in the surrounding waters. [91] The most commonly farmed species are the saltwater and Nile crocodiles, while a hybrid of the saltwater and the rare Siamese crocodile is also bred in Asian farms. [38] On the rear wall of the eye is a tapetum lucidum, which reflects incoming light back onto the retina, thus utilizing the small amount of light available at night to best advantage. N.B. Despite their appearance of being slow, crocodiles have a very fast strike and are top predators in their environment, and various species have been observed attacking and killing other predators such as sharks and big cats. The fastest means by which most species can move is a "belly run", in which the body moves in a snake-like (sinusoidal) fashion, limbs splayed out to either side paddling away frantically while the tail whips to and fro. Irish Name: Crogall na hAfraice Thiar. Despite the strong muscles to close the jaw, crocodiles have extremely small and weak muscles to open the jaw. [67], In captivity, some individuals are claimed to have lived for over a century. The animal’s trademark, and the reason for its name, is its long, slender snout.

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