Bottom: a time-series plot of the average number of clicks per day, aggregated across all students. The Internet and Higher Education, 45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2020.100727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.10.001. Demographic differences in how students navigate through MOOCs. A., MacEntee, V. M., DeLaCruz, S., Englander, C., Jeffrey, T., Takach, E., & Woodall, J. Trueman, M., & Hartley, J. In each of the first 2 weeks of the course, students in the treatment group were sent an email nudging them to think about upcoming coursework and to plan when they would watch each of the five lecture videos for the week. In light of these types of caveats, researchers should not simply apply the foregoing approach to other course contexts. In the following sections of this paper, we provide researchers, instructors, and administrators with examples of these promising avenues of research—defining and identifying behavioral patterns that are related to student learning outcomes, suggesting behavioral changes to students for greater success, and providing insights regarding the mechanisms by which education interventions affect student outcomes. There is consistent evidence that student online performance is associated with self-reported SRL skills overall. For example, given two students who watch the course videos in the same order, one student might engage with other course content in an effort to better understand the video, such as by checking the syllabus and/or course requirements more often. Procrastination, participation, and performance in online learning environments. PS oversaw much of the work using clickstream data to describe students’ time management in online classes and contributed to the section describing clickstream data. Ingest, visualize, and analyze website’s clickstream data to gain business insights. Unlike face-to-face courses, in which students attend lectures at specific days and times, online courses require that students plan when they will watch course lectures and work on assignments. Kazerouni, A. M., Edwards, S. H., Hall, T. S., & Shaffer, C. A. Shi, C., Fu, S., Chen, Q., & Qu, H. (2015). While there is a growing volume of studies that use clickstream data to measure student self-regulatory behaviors, rarely do these studies provide a detailed discussion about the complexities of constructing behavioral measures, the importance of contextual factors required to interpret clickstream data in meaningful ways, and the many caveats associated with these data. However, analyses of clickstream data often require relatively advanced analytic techniques and a deep and contextualized understanding of the structure of the data, as the data are often sequential, event-based, and bursty. (CCRC brief no. Azevedo, R., & Cromley, J. G. (2004). New York: Community College Research Center, Columbia University. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-018-9521-3. Higher Education, 32(2), 199–215. All authors participated in both writing and reviewing sections of the paper. (1996). The availability of clickstream data allowed the researchers to examine some, but not all, of these potential mechanisms. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 17, 13 (2020). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. The authors found that being assigned to treatment had no effect on measured procrastination, spacing, or the composite time management score; students in the treatment group exhibited very similar engagement patterns to students in the control group. This could have resulted if students were induced to start their work earlier (procrastinate less) or work at more ideal times of day (when their work time is less likely to be cut short by fatigue or other obligations). Rachel Baker. These varied findings underscore the importance of understanding whether SRL time management behaviors (e.g., procrastination, cramming, and time-on-task) are actually affected by these interventions and then whether an improvement in time management behaviors is effective at improving performance. 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Elvers, G. C., Polzella, D. J., & Graetz, K. (2003). 3–5). Understanding student procrastination via mixture models. High penetration of mobile devices that generate tremendous amount of data of all types is expected to drive the growth of the market. 2019, for full results). Clickstream data can also advance how we understand the relationship between self-regulated learning and student achievement by allowing researchers to examine how traditional self-report measures of students’ self-regulated learning correspond to students’ behavior and engagement with course materials (Li, Baker, and Warschauer, 2020; Rodriguez et al. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385–407. Cicchinelli, A., Veas, E., Pardo, A., Pammer-Schindler, V., Fessl, A., Barreiros, C., & Lindstädt, S. (2018). What can clickstream data tell you about your business. Plots of the time of each interaction for all treatment students and all control students (collapsed down to a 24-h period) allowed the researchers to examine the effect of the intervention on the time of day that students interacted with the course material. Google Scholar. This would result in outliers and non-linearities in the types of graphs generated by the current study. Fischer, C., Pardos, Z., Baker, R. S., Williams, J. J., Smyth, P., Yu, R., … Warschauer, M. (2020). Access and success with less: Improving productivity in broad-access postsecondary institutions. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 72–80. As our example study III above shows, it is important to work closely with course instructors to understand the specific course structure, available resources, and the resources which the instructor deems most important. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) developed by Pintrich et al. Nussbaumer, A., Steiner, C., & Albert, D. (2008). RB oversaw the entire submission and revision process, co-wrote the section describing clickstream data, co-wrote the sections describing the design and outcomes of interventions using clickstream data, and helped with data analyses for the studies using clickstream data to describe and intervene on student time management in online classes. 90–135). The first approach is based on aggregate non-temporal representations of the clickstream information per student, in which information is combined over time. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.523. 2020). (2018), The number of task counts per day, for each of the 5 weeks, averaged over the students in each grade group. 2005). An instructor dashboard for real-time analytics in interactive programming assignments. Aunalytics is a top expert in this field, providing the technology necessary to support clickstream analysis. Left: rows sorted by the number of total clicks, Right: rows are first grouped as three different behavioral groups, and then ordered by the chronological location of the changepoint per student within each group. While these self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are fundamental to progress in any setting (e.g., traditional classrooms: Paul, Baker, and Cochran, 2012; Trueman and Hartley, 1996; van Den Hurk, 2006; as well as online classes: Elvers, Polzella, and Graetz, 2003; Goda et al. Multiple approaches, such as self-report questionnaires, observation, and think-aloud protocols have been used to measure SRL, with self-report questionnaires being the most widely used (Schellings and Van Hout-Wolters, 2011; Winne, 2010). 2019). In Proceedings of the Seventh International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, (pp. Studies examining the effects of externally and self-imposed interim deadlines on course grades have found positive (e.g., Ariely and Wertenbroch, 2002), negative (e.g., Burger, Charness, and Lynham, 2011), and null effects (e.g., Levy and Ramim, 2013). Clickstream analysis is a fancy name for tracking users’ successive mouse clicks (the clickstream) to see how they surf the web. The raw clickstream data (i.e., time-stamped sequences of students’ visits to different course pages) were used to generate descriptive accounts of the order in which students accessed course materials. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-004-0006-x. These details can reveal even more when they belong to registered users – here, demographic information is made available, enabling the company to create targeted ads and other, more personalized offers. Given the flexibility and freedom with which students could browse content pages within the learning system, students could potentially exhibit a myriad of non-conforming pathways, reflecting individual differences in learning progress and/or study strategies. In addition, internet service providers and online advertising networks also have the capability to record and store clickstream information. 2019; Park et al. All authors were involved in defining the scope and structure of the paper. The number of clicks per day shown for all the students. Bitpipe.com . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2010.11.010. (2017), focused on how student engagement changes over the length of a course. The following image illustrates the Stream Analytics pipeline, Your Stream Analytics job can use all or a selected set of inputs and outputs. 456–460). PubMed Google Scholar. Schellings, G., & Van Hout-Wolters, B. Was das Clickstream-Marketing betrifft, so greift dieses … In this section, we provide illustrations of three main considerations of using clickstream data to understand student SRL through narrations of four of our own studies that have used clickstream data in applied educational settings. Through discussions of four studies, we provide examples of the complexities and particular considerations of using these data to examine student self-regulated learning. To give an example, these two URLs (canvas.uci.edu/pages/segment-5 and canvas.uci.edu/files/89283) show the potential complexity of determining content from URLs. Significant research has been done in studying clickstream data to understand the navigation behavior of users after visiting a Web site. While these do not provide conclusive evidence about differences (or lack thereof) between the two groups, they do illustrate that there are not immediately obvious differences in behavior that could explain the results. First, clickstream data can help instructors and practitioners understand how students are using the available resources in an effort to improve instructional designs. Deconstructing disengagement: Analyzing learner subpopulations in massive open online courses. We then extracted two dimensions of time management behavior: overall degree of procrastination (measured by how heavily a student is weighted on the procrastinating profile) and regularity of procrastination (measured by how variant the component weights on the procrastinating profile are across the 5 weeks of the course). Visual representations of navigational pathways of students in different grade groups. (2007). We (Park et al. Extensive research has been conducted to explore the relationship between self-reported SRL skills and online performance. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests show that the two distributions were not statistically significantly different from each other. Finally, many interventions that aim to affect academic outcomes by influencing SRL behaviors might actually act through other mechanisms, such as by reducing or increasing anxiety, that are not measurable using clickstream data. 2019). Exploring students’ calibration of self reports about study tactics and achievement. Goldstein, D., Hahn, C. S., Hasher, L., Wiprzycka, U. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Beattie, G., Laliberté, J. W. P., Michaud-Leclerc, C., & Oreopoulos, P. (2017). Self-regulated learning strategies predict learner behavior and goal attainment in massive open online courses. Moreover, unlike self-reported measures that are usually collected at only one or limited time points, these measures can be used to investigate how student SRL behaviors unfold over time and to explore how personal and environmental factors influence SRL behaviors. Handelt es sich bei dem Besucher um einen älteren Herrn, dann wechselt die Bannerwerbung der Zielgruppe entsprechend. Preventing abandonment: In addition to “ cart abandonment,” analyzing the positive website interactions, clickstream data can also reveal the top pages where the most visitors leave the site. For instance, clickstream data only capture students’ interactions with online materials. JEDM Journal of Educational Data Mining, 1(1), 3–17. 2018) used a dual-dimension model to assign each student a “Time Management Score.” This composite score takes the highest value for students with low overall procrastination and high regularity (regular non-procrastinators) and lowest value for students with high overall procrastination and high regularity (regular procrastinators). Let’s take a look: 1. In contrast to the consistent positive correlations between self-reported SRL skills and academic performance, there is less consistent evidence that SRL skills can be meaningfully altered to affect academic performance. Whitehill, J., Williams, J. J., Lopez, G., Coleman, C. A., & Reich, J. In this case, clicks on irrelevant content (such as navigation activities in the first study) and duplicate actions were identified and removed. A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Thus, only clicks on the video pages were included in the analysis. For example, researchers may choose to ignore clicks that are not directly related to the behavior of interest. Such behavioral differences outside of researchers’ focus will be invisible in the cleaned sequences and, like any other omitted variables in traditional education research, might bias researchers’ conclusions about the “interesting” clicks. Educational Psychologist, 40(2), 117–128. (2018). The analysis of clickstream data facilitates the understanding and prediction of customer behavior in e-commerce. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164493053003024. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, (pp.
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